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Throughout, Space Stations also charts the fascinating depiction of space stations in popular culture, whether in the form of children's toys, comic-book spacecraft, settings in science-fiction novels, or the backdrop to TV series and Hollywood movies. Space Stations is a beautiful and captivating history of the idea and the reality of the space station from the nineteenth century to the present day. NASA project manager Kitmacher, science writer Miller Aliens: Past, Present, Future , and space historian Pearlman deliver a generously illustrated crash course in the history, present, and future of space stations.
After describing early cosmology, the authors move through the first theoretical and fictional descriptions of permanent space-based structures, the early days of space travel, the first working stations, and a longer look at the International Space Station. The physics and early historical background are at times rushed and repetitive, but the technical descriptions are unimpeachable and wonderfully complemented by accounts of the minutiae of everyday life in space.
The authors have created an information-packed starting point perfect for anyone interested in space stations, but unsure where to begin. Although NASA scientists are still a long way from constructing a version of the iconic wheel-shaped space station in A Space Odyssey, since , several well-designed research stations have successfully made it into orbit, from the ill-fated Skylab, which famously fell to earth after only six years, to the still operational International Space Station ISS , launched in Earth Optimism Summit.
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In the Egyptian museum, the mummified and fragile bodies of two baby girls are kept in special storage. Archaeologists believe they may have played a role in the burial ceremony of King Tutankhamun. Comment on this Story.
Last Name. It also created a Civilian-Military Liaison Committee, chaired by the President, responsible for coordinating the nation's civilian and military space programs. Marshall Space Flight Center , with von Braun as its first director. Development of the Saturn rocket family , which when mature gave the US parity with the Soviets in terms of lifting capability, was thus transferred to NASA.
Three secret attempts to launch Luna E-1 -class impactor probes failed. The fourth attempt, Luna 1 , launched successfully on January 2, , but missed the Moon.
The fifth attempt on June 18 also failed at launch. The By , some American observers had predicted that the Soviet Union would be the first to get a human into space because of the time needed to prepare for Mercury's first launch. Although he had the ability to take control of his capsule in an emergency by opening an envelope he had in the cabin that contained a code that could be typed into the computer, it was flown in an automatic mode as a precaution; medical science at that time did not know what would happen to a human in the weightlessness of space. For this reason, the Soviet Union omitted from their FAI submission the fact that Gagarin did not land with his capsule.
When the FAI filing for Gherman Titov 's second Vostok flight in August disclosed the ejection landing technique, the FAI committee decided to investigate, and concluded that the technological accomplishment of human spaceflight lay in the safe launch, orbiting, and return, rather than the manner of landing, and revised their rules, keeping Gagarin's and Titov's records intact. Gagarin became a national hero of the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc, and a worldwide celebrity.
The radio communication between the launch control room and Gagarin included the following dialogue at the moment of rocket launch:. Korolev: "Preliminary stage We wish you a good flight. Everything is all right. Gagarin's informal poyekhali! This program studied several different types of one-man space vehicles, settling on a ballistic re-entry capsule launched on a derivative Atlas missile , and selecting a group of nine candidate pilots.
NASA selected a new group of astronaut from the Greek for "star sailor" candidates from Navy , Air Force and Marine test pilots, and narrowed this down to a group of seven for the program.
Capsule design and astronaut training began immediately, working toward preliminary suborbital flights on the Redstone missile , followed by orbital flights on the Atlas. Each flight series would first start uncrewed, then carry a non-human primate, then finally humans. On May 5, , Alan Shepard became the first American in space, launching in a ballistic trajectory on Mercury-Redstone 3 , in a spacecraft he named Freedom 7.
Now it is time to take longer strides—time for a great new American enterprise—time for this nation to take a clearly leading role in space achievement, which in many ways may hold the key to our future on Earth. Recognizing the head start obtained by the Soviets with their large rocket engines, which gives them many months of lead-time, and recognizing the likelihood that they will exploit this lead for some time to come in still more impressive successes, we nevertheless are required to make new efforts on our own.
John F. Kennedy 's support for America's crewed space program was lukewarm. Jerome Wiesner of MIT, who served as a science advisor to presidents Eisenhower and Kennedy, and himself an opponent of crewed space exploration, remarked, "If Kennedy could have opted out of a big space program without hurting the country in his judgment, he would have. Webb submitted a budget request to fund a Moon landing before , Kennedy rejected it because it was simply too expensive. Gagarin's flight changed this; now Kennedy sensed the humiliation and fear on the part of the American public over the Soviet lead.
Additionally, the Bay of Pigs invasion , planned before his term began but executed during it, was an embarrassment to his administration due to the colossal failure of the US forces.
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Johnson , asking him to look into the state of America's space program, and into programs that could offer NASA the opportunity to catch up. Johnson, in turn, consulted with von Braun, who answered Kennedy's questions based on his estimates of US and Soviet rocket lifting capability. Kennedy ultimately decided to pursue what became the Apollo program , and on May 25 took the opportunity to ask for Congressional support in a Cold War speech titled "Special Message on Urgent National Needs". Johnson Space Center facility.
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As later disclosed, the Soviet Union secretly pursued a crewed lunar program until Almost a year after the Soviet Union put a human into orbit, astronaut John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth, on February 20, The United States launched three more Mercury flights after Glenn's: Aurora 7 on May 24, duplicated Glenn's three orbits, Sigma 7 on October 3, six orbits, and Faith 7 on May 15, 22 orbits NASA at first intended to launch one more mission, extending the spacecraft's endurance to three days, but since this would not beat the Soviet record, it was decided instead to concentrate on developing Project Gemini.
Gherman Titov became the first Soviet cosmonaut to exercise manual control of his Vostok 2 craft on August 6, Though the two craft's orbits were as nearly identical as possible given the accuracy of the launch rocket's guidance system, slight variations still existed which drew the two craft at first as close to each other as 6. There were no maneuvering rockets on the Vostok to permit space rendezvous , required to keep two spacecraft a controlled distance apart. This time they launched the first woman also the first civilian , Valentina Tereshkova , into space on Vostok 6.
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The Soviets kept the details and true appearance of the Vostok capsule secret until the April Moscow Economic Exhibition, where it was first displayed without its aerodynamic nose cone concealing the spherical capsule. The "Vostok spaceship" had been first displayed at the July Tushino air show , mounted on its launch vehicle's third stage, with the nose cone in place.
A tail section with eight fins was also added, in an apparent attempt to confuse western observers. This spurious tail section also appeared on official commemorative stamps and a documentary. Kennedy thus changed his mind regarding the desirability of the space race, preferring instead to ease tensions with the Soviet Union by cooperating on projects such as a joint lunar landing.
During the next few weeks he reportedly concluded that both nations might realize cost benefits and technological gains from a joint venture, and decided to accept Kennedy's offer based on a measure of rapport during their years as leaders of the world's two superpowers, but changed his mind and dropped the idea since he did not have the same trust for Kennedy's successor, Lyndon Johnson.
As President, Johnson steadfastly pursued the Gemini and Apollo programs, promoting them as Kennedy's legacy to the American public. One week after Kennedy's death, he issued an executive order renaming the Cape Canaveral and Apollo launch facilities after Kennedy. Focused by the commitment to a Moon landing, in January the US announced Project Gemini , a two-person spacecraft that would support the later three-person Apollo by developing the key spaceflight technologies of space rendezvous and docking of two craft, flight durations of sufficient length to simulate going to the Moon and back, and extra-vehicular activity to accomplish useful work outside the spacecraft.
Meanwhile, Korolev had planned further, long-term missions for the Vostok spacecraft, and had four Vostoks in various stages of fabrication in late at his OKB-1 facilities. These plans included major advancements in spacecraft capabilities, including a two-person spacecraft, the ability to change orbits, the capacity to perform an extravehicular activity EVA , and the goal of docking with another spacecraft. The greater advances of the Soviet space program at the time allowed their space program to achieve other significant firsts, including the first EVA "spacewalk".
Gemini took a year longer than planned to accomplish its first flight, allowing the Soviets to achieve another first, launching the first spacecraft with a three-cosmonaut crew, Voskhod 1 , on October 12, Flying without spacesuits exposed the cosmonauts to significant risk in the event of potentially fatal cabin depressurization.